Every city has pockets of underused and underutilized land or distressed and decaying urban areas. These pockets of underused land weaken the city's image, livability, and productivity. They are usually the result of changes in the urban growth and productivity patterns. We have documented eight cities in this volume, which have faced major challenges of this kind.
Urban Regeneration Decision Tool
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The redevelopment of city centers from an overcrowded, slum-filled decrepit urban core during the beginnings of self-governance in the 1960s to the modern global financial centers today, is often held up as one of the most visible manifestations of the city state's success.